Syllabus

AP CHEMISTRY COURSE SYLLABUS


Instructor: Eric Smart, eric.smart@bourbon.kyschools.us


Overview: This course is organized to be the equivalent of a first year college chemistry course. This course has two major goals. 1) To prepare you to take and pass the AP Chemistry exam. 2) To conduct hands-on chemistry experiments and develop a lab notebook of college-level quality and sophistication


Like all college courses, this course will require a significant commitment of time and effort both in the class and outside of the class. This is NOT a high school course. To be successful you will need to integrate and apply a huge amount of information. We will move at a rapid pace to cover all of the required AP topics. It is absolutely essential that you do not fall behind.


We will develop a college chemistry lab style notebook for all of our experiments. This will take significant work outside of the classroom. It is important that these lab experiments be properly written up. We will have approximately one lab every two weeks. All labs are completed by the students individually or in groups of 2-3. We will work around illnesses and other scheduling problems to ensure that everyone has the opportunity to complete the labs.


We will have homework 3 to 4 times a week. The only way to become proficient and to understand conceptual and mathematical problems is to practice them. Quizzes will often be given at the start of class. The quizzes will be timed with no extra time given. The purpose is to get you used to the environment of timed tests. All homework, exams, quizzes, class discussions, and labs are designed to help you understand the concepts and to directly apply the concepts covered in class.


We will be using an on-line program called Moodle (http://icolonel.bourbon.kyschools.us) to provide expanded instruction, guided notes, homework, quizzes, etc. Moodle can be accessed from any computer or internet capable device, such as a tablet or phone. Write down and do not lose your username and password because I do not have direct access to this information and can not give them to you.


Textbook: Chemistry-Brown, LeMay, Bursten, and Murphy, 11th edition


Supplies: Notebook for lecture notes, lab notebook (hard bound-no tear out sheets), graph paper, scientific calculator (cannot be your cell phone and cannot have a keyboard-AP Chemistry College Board rules).


Grading Scale:
92-100 A
82-91 B
70-81 C
64-69 D
0-63 F


Grading Procedure:
1. Exams are 70% of term grade
2. Lab reports, quizzes, homework, etc are 30% of term grade
3. The Mid-Term Exam and Final Exam are 20% of each semester grade.


Grades will be posted regularly on the classroom door by student ID number. It is the responsibility of each student to check their grades for missing work and to report any possible errors.


Student Responsibilities:
1. Be on time for each class.
2. Have the necessary supplies, such as, note paper, pencil, calculator, graph paper, etc.
3. Stay focused on the lesson and work.
4. Do not use cell phones or other electronic devices.
5. Do not use any ear listening devices without prior permission.
6. Complete all work (homework, quizzes, lab reports, etc) on time.
7. Make up all missing work when absent. All assignments are posted on the room door.
It is your responsibility to find out what you missed and complete the assignment.
8. If absent, obtain missing notes either from a friend or Dr. Smart.
9. Do not cheat.


Extra Help/Tutoring:
I am available almost every day before school starts, at break, and after school to help students.


Exam Retakes/Late Work
Students can retake exams. The “retake” exam will have different questions that cover the same material as the original exam. The student will keep the highest grade, that is, their grade can NOT go down. In order to retake an exam, the student will have to demonstrate that they have made progress in learning the material, for instance, correcting previously wrong test questions, completing additional homework problems, or come in for tutoring. Once both the student and Dr. Smart are satisfied that they are prepared, the student can retake the exam.


It is important that all assignments are completed on time. However, if work is handed in late it will be graded without penalty with the following exception. Once the answer key is made available to students or lab reports are handed back the late work can no longer be accepted and the grade will become a zero. Students with excused absences will have time to make up the assignments according to school policy.


Class Rules:
1. Students will be on time. Tardy students automatically receive break detention (according to school policy).
2. Students will bring necessary materials to class (textbook, paper, pen/pencil, calculator, etc).
3. Students receive 2 hall passes per semester (according to school policy). This includes retrieving items from lockers, the water fountain, and using the restroom. Passes to the nurse/office or other errands will be handled by the teacher.
4. Students may NOT eat/drink in the science lab. This is OSHA policy and school policy. Food or beverage being consumed may be stored, confiscated, or thrown out at the teacher’s discretion.
5. Electronic devices are NOT permitted to be used/displayed unless permission is given by the teacher. For example, phones may be used as calculators in certain instances. Ear buds must be removed for class. It is NOT the teacher’s responsibility to know if the electronic device is/is not functioning. The teacher may ask for any electronic device not used with permission for appropriate activities (ie. texting, checking messages, playing games, pretending to text, etc). Confiscated devices may be picked up at the end of the day in the office according to school policy. Parents: do not expect your student to return a message during class time. They may check phones between classes, during lunch, and during break.
6. Students will conduct themselves so as not to be a distraction to their own work or to others’.
7. While working in the lab, all safety procedures will be followed at all times. Disregarding safety procedures, disruptive behavior, or any uncooperative behavior will result in immediate removal of the student from the lab. The safety of the student and other students always receives top priority.


Correcting student misbehavior always begins with addressing the issue and allowing the student the opportunity to correct the behavior themselves.


Topics Covered:
Chapter 1 Matter and Measurement pp 1-35
a) Classifications of matter
b) Properties of matter
c) Units of measurement
d) Dimensional analysis


Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, Ions pp 36-77
a) Atomic theory of matter
b) Atomic structure
c) Atomic weights
d) Periodic table
e) Molecules and molecular compounds
f) Ions and ionic compounds
g) Naming inorganic compounds
h) Simple organic compounds


Chapter 3 Stoichiometry pp 78-117
a) Chemical equations
b) Patterns of chemical reactivity
c) Formula weights
d) Avogadro’s number and the mole
e) Empirical formulas from analyses
f) Quantitative information from balanced equations
g) Limiting reactants


Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions, Solutions pp 118-163
a) General properties of aqueous solutions
b) Precipitation reactions
c) Acid-base reactions
d) Oxidation-reduction reactions
e) Concentrations of solutions
f) Solution stoichiometry and chemical analysis


Chapter 5 Thermochemistry pp 164-209
a) Nature of energy
b) First law of thermodynamics
c) Enthalpies of reaction
d) Calorimetry
e) Hess’s law
f) Enthalpies of formation
g) Foods and fuels


Chapter 6 Electronic Structure of Atoms pp 210-253
a) Wave nature of light
b) Quantized energy and photons
c) Line spectra and the Bohr model
d) Wave behavior of matter
e) Quantum mechanics and atomic orbitals
f) Representations of orbitals
g) Electron configurations
h) Electron configurations and the periodic table


Chapter 7 Periodic Properties of Elements pp 254-295
a) Effective nuclear charge
b) Size of atoms and ions
c) Ionization energy
d) Electron affinities
e) Metals, nonmetals, and metalloids
f) Group trends for the active metals
g) Group trends for selected nonmetals


Chapter 8 Chemical Bonding pp 296-339
a) Chemical bonds, Lewis symbols, and octet rule
b) Ionic bonding
c) Covalent bonding
d) Bond polarity and electronegativity
e) Drawing Lewis structures
f) Resonance structures
g) Exceptions to the octet rule
h) Strengths of covalent bonds


Chapter 9 Geometry and Bonding pp 340-391
a) Molecular shapes
b) VSEPR model
c) Molecular shape and molecular polarity
d) Covalent bonding and orbital overlap
e) Hybrid orbitals
f) Multiple bonds


Chapter 10 Gases pp 392-435
a) Characteristics of gases
b) Pressure
c) The gas laws
d) Ideal-gas equation
e) Gas mixtures and partial pressures
f) Kinetic-molecular theory
g) Molecular effusion and diffusion
h) Real gases: deviations from ideal behavior


Chapter 11 Intermolecular Forces pp 436-479
a) Molecular comparison of gases, liquids, and solids
b) Intermolecular forces
c) Some properties of liquids
e) Phase changes
f) Vapor pressure
g) Phase diagrams
h) Structures of solids
i) Bonding in solids


Chapter 13 Properties of Solutions pp 526-571
a) The solution process
b) Saturated solutions and solubility
c) Factors affecting solubility
d) Ways of expressing concentration
e) Colligative properties
f) Colloids


Chapter 14 Chemical Kinetics pp 527-625
a) Reaction rates
b) Rate law: effect of concentration
c) Change of concentration with time
d) Temperature and rate
e) Reaction mechanisms
f) Catalysis


Chapter 15 Chemical Equilibrium pp 626-665
a) Concept of equilibrium
b) Equilibrium constant
c) Interpreting and working with equilibrium constants
d) Heterogeneous equilibria
e) Calculating equilibrium constants
f) Application of equilibrium constants
g) Le Chatelier’s principle


Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria pp 666-717
a) Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases
b) Autoionization of water
c) The pH scale
d) Strong acids and bases
e) Weak acids
f) Weak bases
g) Relationship between Ka and Kb
h) Acid-base properties of salt solutions
i) Lewis acids and bases


Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria pp 718-765
a) Common-ion effect
b) Buffered solutions
c) Acid-base titrations
d) Solubility equilibria
e) Factors that affect solubility
f) Precipitation and separation of ions
g) Qualitative analysis for metallic elements


Chapter 19 Chemical Thermodynamics pp 800-841
a) Spontaneous processes
b) Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics
c) Molecular interpretation of entropy
d) Entropy changes in chemical reactions
e) Gibbs free energy
f) Free energy and temperature
g) Free energy and the equilibrium constant


Chapter 20 Electrochemistry pp 842-891
a) Oxidation states and oxidation-reduction reactions
b) Balancing oxidation-reduction reactions
c) Voltaic cells
d) Cell EMF under standard conditions
e) Free energy and redox reactions
f) Cell EMF under nonstandard conditions
g) Batteries and fuel cells
h) Corrosion
i) Electrolysis


Chapter 21 Nuclear Chemistry pp 892-928
a) Radioactivity
b) Patterns of nuclear stability
c) Nuclear transmutations
d) Rates of radioactive decay
e) Detection of radioactivity
f) Energy changes in nuclear reactions
g) Nuclear power: fission
h) Nuclear power: fusion
i) Radiation in living systems


Laboratory Work:
Although laboratory skills are not directly tested on the AP chemistry exam they are an essential component of your AP chemistry experience.
• You will gain valuable experience in using and manipulating chemistry equipment such as: beakers, burners, funnels, balances, thermometers, graduated cylinders , pH meter, spectrophotometers, burets, and many more.
• You will become familiar with general types of chemical laboratory work such as synthesis of compounds, titrations, gravimetric analysis, separations, spectrophotometry, and more.
• You will learn to make accurate and objective observations in your lab notebook.
• You will learn to record what you see and not what you think you should see.
• You will become familiar with evidence of chemical change, such as, precipitation, color change, temperature change, gas formation, and more.
• You will learn how to make, record, and interpret quantitative and qualitative measurements.
• You will learn how to organize your data in your lab notebook and anticipate the type of presentation best suited for your data.
• You will learn to distinguish between mistakes and scientific errors.
• You will learn to draw conclusions.
• You will learn to communicate with your peers by working in small groups, sharing reagents, sharing equipment, and sharing data.
• You will develop a detailed laboratory notebook that documents your experimental studies. Universities and colleges may ask to see your notebook before credit is given.


Laboratory Notebook:
Unless otherwise state, the following format will be used when writing up all lab experiments.
I. Title, Date, Lab Partners (if applicable)
II. Introduction/Purpose
III. Methods/Procedures
IV. Data/Observations
V. Analysis of Results
VI. Conclusions


I. Title, Date, Lab Partners (if applicable)
Descriptive title of the experiment and the date or dates, if more than one day, that the experiment was performed. It is important to keep track of all lab partners.


II. Introduction/Purpose
Describe the overall goal(s) of the experiment. What are you trying to do or determine in the experiment? You hypothesis should be in this section. Briefly summarize relevant background information concerning the experiment or the theoretical principles on which the experiment is based. This section should include relevant chemical equations or mathematical equations.


III. Methods/Procedures
This section details what you did and how you did it. This section does not require extensive detail but should provide enough detail that a competent reader can understand what you did. Unusual or specialized techniques should contain more detail.


IV. Data/Observations
Neatly record all measurements and observations made during the experiment. The use of data tables can greatly facilitate the recording of the data. Make sure that detailed notes are taken, paying attention to units, significant figures, and appropriate labels. The data/observations should be understandable by any competent reader so enough detail (titles, labels, text) needs to be included to ensure this. Do not discuss or interpret your data in this section.


V. Analysis of Results
This section will include all calculations, graphs, analyses, and the discussion of your results. All calculations need to be clearly labeled as to the purpose (what are you calculating), contain significant figures, and contain the appropriate units. A sample calculation can be shown if the same calculation is done repeatedly. All graphs must have a descriptive title, labeled axis, units, and any other text that aids in understanding. The graphs can be computer generated or done by hand (use a ruler). If questions were assigned with the lab, answer all of the questions in this section (clearly numbered). In this section you should address all of the appropriate following points:
-What conclusions can be drawn and how you arrived at these conclusions
-Support your conclusions with specific observations or calculations that you made
-Explain any inconsistencies with your predictions (mistakes, experimental error, incorrect prediction, etc)—be specific and detailed
-Discussion any major sources of error and explain how these errors impacted on the results. Identify possible sources of bias. Be specific.
-Identify any unpredicted problems that occurred during the experiment and how they can be avoided in the future
-Discuss any unexpected results
-Compare your results with your classmates
-Recommend modifications or future work that could improve or extend your results.


VI. Conclusions
Concisely state your major conclusions. Using “bullets” often helps organize this section. Conclusions should relate to the stated goals of the experiment and be supported with specific examples from the results. Always support your conclusions with specific data.

Bourbon County High School